نوع مقاله : Research Paper

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی عمران-آب، دانشکده مهندسی شیمی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد قائمشهر، مازندران، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه شیمی، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رودهن، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار، گروه تحقیقاتی غشا، پژوهشکده فناوری نانو، دانشگاه صنعتی نوشیروانی بابل، مازندران، ایران.

4 استادیار، گروه شیمی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد قائمشهر، مازندران، ایران.

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: با توجه به بالا بودن بار آلایندگی پساب تولیدشده از کارخانه‌های کاغذ و به منظور جلوگیری از آسیب به محیط‌زیست پیرامون، پساب حاصل پیش از ورود به محیط‌زیست نیازمند تصفیه می‌باشد.
مواد و روش‌ها: بعد از نمونه‌گیری از پساب کارخانه چوب و کاغذ در شهرستان بابل و بررسی خواص کمی و کیفی آن، مقادیر بالایی از COD و TSS در آن شناسایی شد. در نتیجه، فرایند انعقاد و لخته‌سازی با استفاده از مواد منعقدکننده پلیمری مانند سولفات‌آهن، کلروفریک، پلی‌آلومینیوم‌کلراید و آلوم و مواد لخته‌ساز و کمک منعقدکننده مانند پلی‌آکریل‌آمید آنیونی و کاتیونی برای حذف مقادیر COD و TSSمورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
یافته‌ها: سولفات‌آهن، کلروفریک، پلی‌آلومینیوم‌کلراید، آلوم در pH بهینه خود به ترتیب منجر به حذف %12، %5/13، %15 و %23 از COD پساب و همچنین %5/45، %47، %49 و %52 از TSS شدند. سپس با بررسی تأثیر غلظت مواد منعقدکننده، آلوم با غلظت بهینه g/l 1 موجب حذف %7/23 COD و %4/56 TSS شد. همچنین تأثیر استفاده از کمک منعقد کننده‌های پلیمری آنیونی و کاتیونی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. با توجه به نتایج حاصل، کمک منعقدکننده آنیونی با غلظت g/l 004 /0 به همراه غلظت بهینه آلوم سبب حذف %6/48 COD و %6/69 TSS شد.
نتیجه‌گیرى: بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده، می‌توان از فرایند انعقاد و ته نشینی به منظور تصفیه پساب کارخانه کاغذ‌سازی استفاده کرد. همچنین استفاده از ماده منعقد‌کننده آلوم و کمک منعقدکننده آنیونی به صورت همزمان سبب افزایش بازدهی فرایند انعقاد و لخته‌سازی در حذف آلاینده‌های موجود در پساب کارخانه کاغذسازی می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the performance of polymeric coagulants and flocculants on the characteristics of paper mill effluent

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Seifi 1
  • Hasan Ahmadi 2
  • Magid peyrovi 3
  • Mehri Esfahanian 4

1 1. Ph.D Student, Department of Chemical Engineering, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr, Iran.

2 2. Assistant Professor, Scientific Member of Engineering and Technical Department, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen Branch, Tehran, Iran.

3 3. Associate Professor, Membrane Research Group, Nanotechnology Institute, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Shariati Ave., Babol, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor, Chemistry group, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Due to the high pollutant load of paper mill effluent and in order to decrease contaminants, effluent should be treated before being discharged into the environment.
Materials and Methods: After collecting samples of paper mill effluent in Babol city, high levels of COD and TSS were found. Therefore, polymeric coagulants such as iron sulfate, ferric chloride, polyaluminum chloride, and alum were employed, as well as anionic and cationic polyacrylamide flocculants.
Results: Ferrous sulfate, ferric chloride, aluminum polychloride and alum at their optimum pH removed 12%, 13.5%, 15%, and 23% of effluent COD, respectively, as well as 45.5%, 47%, 49% and 52% of TSS. Then, by examining the coagulants concentration effect, alum with an optimal concentration of 1 g/l removed 23.7% COD and 56.4% TSS. Additionally, the effects of anionic and cationic polymeric coagulants were studied. According to the results, using an anionic coagulant at a concentration of 0.004 g / l in combination with the optimal amount of alum resulted in the elimination of 48.6 % COD and 69.6 % TSS.
Conclusion: Based on the results, the coagulation and sedimentation methods can be utilized to treat the effluent of paper mills. Furthermore, using an alum coagulant and an anionic coagulant at the same time improves the efficiency of the coagulation and flocculation processes in removing pollutants from paper mill effluent.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Chemical treatment
  • Coagulation and flocculation
  • Polymeric materials
  • COD
  • TSS
  1. Toczyłowska-Mamińska R. Limits and perspectives of pulp and paper industry wastewater treatment–A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2017;78:764-72.
  2. Pokhrel D, Viraraghavan T. Treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater—a review. Science of the total environment. 2004;333(1-3):37-58.
  3. Ping L, Zhuang H, Shan S. New insights into pollutants removal, toxicity reduction and microbial profiles in a lab-scale IC-A/O-membrane reactor system for paper wastewater reclamation. Science of The Total Environment. 2019;674:374-82. 
  4. Jain C, Kumar A, Izazy MH. Color removal from paper mill effluent through adsorption technology. Environmental monitoring and assessment. 2009;149(1):343-8. 
  5. Chanworrawoot K, Hunsom M. Treatment of wastewater from pulp and paper mill industry by electrochemical methods in membrane reactor. Journal of environmental management. 2012;113:399-406. 
  6. Altın A, Altın S, Yıldırım Ö. Treatment of kraft pulp and paper mill wastewater by electro-Fenton/electro-coagulation process. 2017.
  7. Ejraei A, Aroon MA, Saravani AZ. Wastewater treatment using a hybrid system combining adsorption, photocatalytic degradation and membrane filtration processes. Journal of Water Process Engineering. 2019;28:45-53. 
  8. Grötzner M, Melchiors E, Schroeder LH, dos Santos AR, Moscon KG, de Andrade MA, et al. Pulp and paper mill effluent treated by combining coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation and Fenton processes. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 2018;229(11):1-7. 
  9. Waye A, Annal M, Tang A, Picard G, Harnois F, Guerrero-Analco JA, et al. Canadian boreal pulp and paper feedstocks contain neuroactive substances that interact in vitro with GABA and dopaminergic systems in the brain. Science of the total environment. 2014;468:315-25.
  10. Balakshin MY, Capanema EA, Chang HM. Recent advances in the isolation and analysis of lignins and lignin–carbohydrate complexes. Characterization of lignocellulosic materials. 2008:148-70.
  11. Yadav S, Chandra R. Detection and assessment of the phytotoxicity of residual organic pollutants in sediment contaminated with pulp and paper mill effluent. Environmental monitoring and assessment. 2018;190(10):1-15.
  12. Miege C, Choubert J, Ribeiro L, Eusebe M, Coquery M. Removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals and personal care products with varying wastewater treatment processes and operating conditions–conception of a database and first results. Water Science and Technology. 2008;57(1):49-56. 
  13. Koyuncu I, Yalcin F, Ozturk I. Color removal of high strength paper and fermentation industry effluents with membrane technology. Water science and technology. 1999;40(11-12):241-8. 
  14. Thompson G, Swain J, Kay M, Forster C. The treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent: a review. Bioresource technology. 2001;77(3):275-86. 
  15. Chakradhar B, Shrivastava S. Colour removal of pulp and paper effluents. 2004. 
  16. Freire R, Kunz A, Durán N. Some chemical and toxicological aspects about paper mill effluent treatment with ozone. Environmental technology. 2000;21(6):717-21.
  17. Magnusson B, Ekstrand E-M, Karlsson A, Ejlertsson J. Combining high-rate aerobic wastewater treatment with anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge at a pulp and paper mill. Water Science and Technology. 2018;77(8):2068-76. 
  18. Cecen F, Urban W, Haberl R. Biological and advanced treatment of sulfate pulp bleaching effluents. Water Science and Technology. 1992;26(1-2):435-44.
  19. Sreekanth D, Sivaramakrishna D, Himabindu V, Anjaneyulu Y. Thermophilic treatment of bulk drug pharmaceutical industrial wastewaters by using hybrid up flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Bioresource Technology. 2009;100(9):2534-9. 
  20. Oz NA, Ince O, Ince BK. Effect of wastewater composition on methanogenic activity in an anaerobic reactor. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 2004;39(11-12):2941-53. 
  21. Jönsson A-S, Wallberg O. Cost estimates of kraft lignin recovery by ultrafiltration. Desalination. 2009;237(1-3):254-67. 
  22. Azimi SC, Shirini F, Pendashteh A. Treatment of wood industry wastewater by combined coagulation–flocculation–decantation and fenton process. Water Environment Research. 2021;93(3):433-44.
  23. Xu Y, Li Y, Hou Y. Reducing ultrafiltration membrane fouling during recycled paper mill wastewater treatment using pretreatment technologies: a comparison between coagulation and Fenton. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology. 2019;94(3):804-11. 
  24. Ansari S, Alavi J, Yaseen ZM. Performance of full-scale coagulation-flocculation/DAF as a pre-treatment technology for biodegradability enhancement of high strength wastepaper-recycling wastewater. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2018;25(34):33978-91.
  25. Federation WE, Association A. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association (APHA): Washington, DC, USA. 2005. 
  26. Wang J-P, Chen Y-Z, Wang Y, Yuan S-J, Yu H-Q. Optimization of the coagulation-flocculation process for pulp mill wastewater treatment using a combination of uniform design and response surface methodology. Water research. 2011;45(17):5633-40.
  27. Licsko I. Realistic coagulation mechanisms in the use of aluminium and iron (III) salts. Water Science and Technology. 1997;36(4):103-10.
  28. Dayarathne H, Angove MJ, Aryal R, Abuel-Naga H, Mainali B. Removal of natural organic matter from source water: Review on coagulants, dual coagulation, alternative coagulants, and mechanisms. Journal of Water Process Engineering. 2021;40:101820. 
  29. Kaur B, Garg RK, Singh AP. Treatment of Wastewater from Pulp and Paper Mill using Coagulation and Flocculation. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques. 2021;9(1):158-63.
  30. Ahmad A, Wong S, Teng T, Zuhairi A. Improvement of alum and PACl coagulation by polyacrylamides (PAMs) for the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2008;137(3):510-7.