نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشى اصیل کمی و کیفی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 دکتری تخصصی، گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران، ایران.

3 کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

4 استاد، گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

5 ﻛﺎرﺷﻨﺎس ارﺷﺪمهندسی بهداشت محیط، شهرداری مشهد، مشهد، اﻳﺮان.

6 کارشناسی، مهندسی بهداشت محیط، گروه سلامت و محیط کار، معاونت بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

زمینه و هدف:
آلودگی ذرات معلق هوا به عنوان یکی از عوامل موثر بر بیماری‌های ایسکمیک قلبی، سکته مغزی، بیماری های ریوی و انسداد مزمن ریوی شناخته شده است. هدف از این مطالعه برآورد مرگ و میر منتسب ناشی از مواجهه طولانی مدت با ذرات PM2.5 در شهر مشهد طی سال 1398 با استفاده از مدل AirQ+ بود.

مواد و روش‌ها:
به منظور ارائه این مطالعه تحلیلی، داده‌های کیفیت هوا در سال 1398 از اداره کل محیط زیست استان و مرکز پایش آلایندها زیست محیطی شهرداری مشهد اخذ گردید. داده‌های ساعتی هر ایستگاه اعتبارسازی شده و ایستگاه‌هایی که کمتر از 75 درصد دیتاها ثبت نشده و یا اعتبار نداشت حذف گردید. داده‌های جمعیتی و پارامترهای هواشناسی نیز از سازمان‌های مربوطه اخذ گردید. جهت کمی‌سازی اثرات بهداشتی ذرات معلق از نرم‌افزار AirQ+ استفاده شد. غلظتCut-off مدنظر برابر10 میکروگرم بر مترمکعب بر اساس رهنمود WHO در نظر گرفته شد.
یافته‌ها:
نتایج مطالعه بیانگرغلظت متوسطPM2.5 برابر با µg/m316/31 و تعداد کل 1069مورد مرگ منتسب به این ذرات در سال 1398 بوده است که این میزان حدود 5/9 درصد از کل مرگ‌های شهر مشهد است. در مواجهه بلند مدت میزان مرگ‌های منتسب به PM2.5 به دلیل انسداد مزمن ریوی در سال مذکور 87/13 درصد ، به دلیل سرطان ریه 5/11 درصد، به دلیل ایسکمیک قلبی 7/6 درصد و به دلیل سکته مغزی حدود 3/8 درصد از کل مرگ‌های شهر مشهد در جمعیت بالای 25 سال را به خود اختصاص داده است.
نتیجه‌گیری:
آلاینده PM2.5 به دلیل ساختار و ترکیبات ویژه خود میتواند یکی از عوامل مخاطره آمیز برای سلامت عموم افراد مطرح باشد. در صورتیکه اثرات سینرژیستی آلاینده‌ها در نظر گرفته شود، میزان موارد مرگ منتسب به آلودگی هوا میتواند بسیار بیشتر از موارد برآورد کنونی باشد. نتایج این مطالعه ضرورت اقدامات موثر در راستای بهبود کیفیت هوای شهر مشهد را نشان می دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Estimation of mortality attributed to PM2.5 in Mashhad using AirQ+ modeling in 2019.

نویسندگان [English]

  • maryam sarkhosh 1
  • Mostafa Hadei 2
  • sima nourbakhsh 3
  • hosein alidadi 4
  • mohammad pazira 5
  • gholamreza farahzad 6

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, school of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Ph.D., Department of Environmental Health Engineering, school of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 MSc, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, school of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

4 Professor, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, school of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. s

5 MS.c, Environmental Health Engineering, Municipality of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

6 Bachelor, Environmental Health Engineering, Department of Health and Work Environment, Vice Chancellor for Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Background and Purpose:
Assessing the health effects of air pollution can provide useful information for health policy . AirQ + software is a tool for determining and modeling the health effects attributed to air pollutants such as O3, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. The aim of this study was to quantify the health effects of PM2.5 pollutants in the air of Mashhad.
materials and methods:
In order to present this analytical study, air quality data were obtained in 2019 from the General Department of Environment of the province and the Environmental Pollutants Monitoring Center of Mashhad Municipality. Hourly data of each validated station and stations that less than 75% of the data were not registered or were not valid were eliminate. Demographic and meteorological information were also obtained from relevant organizations. AirQ + software was used to quantify the health effects of suspended particles. The desired cut-off concentration was 10 μg / m3 according to WHO guidelines.
result:
The results show that the total death rate attributed to PM2.5 in 2019 was about 1069 cases, which is about 9.5% of the total deaths in Mashhad. In the long term exposure, the rate of premature death attributed to PM2.5 due to COPD in that year was about 14%, due to cancer about 12%, due to IHD about 6% and due to stroke about 8% of the total deaths in Mashhad in the upper25 years old population.
Conclusion:
Among air pollutants, PM2.5 due to its special structure composition can be one of the risk factors for public health. This study does not consider the synergistic effects of air pollutants, which is due to the lack of studies worldwide. If the synergistic effects of pollutants are taken into account, the rate of deaths attributed to air pollution could be much higher than currently estimated.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Air pollution
  • Particulate Matter
  • Mortality
  • health impact assessment
  • Risk Assessment
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