ارزیابی ریسک سلامت انسان در مواجهه با نیترات ناشی از مصرف سبزیجات عرضه شده در سطح شهر کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک- دانشکده کشاورزی- دانشگاه رازی_ کرمانشاه- ایران

2 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک- دانشکده کشاورزی- دانشگاه رازی- کرمانشاه- ایران

چکیده

چکیده
زمینه و هدف: مصرف بیش از حد کود­های نیتروژنی سبب تولید سبزیجات با غلظت بالای نیترات می­گردد. بالا بودن غلظت نیترات در محصولات تولیدی باعث انواع بیماری­ها به‌خصوص تولید ماده سرطان‌زای نیتروز آمین در بزرگسالان می‌گردد. به‌دلیل افزایش بیماری­های سرطانی و غیرسرطانی ناشی از مصرف مواد غذایی حاوی نیترات بالا، ارزیابی دقیق و جامعی از وضعیت تجمع نیترات در سبزی­ها مورد نیاز است، لذا مطالعه حاضر با هدف ارزیابی ریسک سلامتی ناشی از نیترات در تعدادی از سبزیجات و صیفی­جات پرمصرف شهر کرمانشاه انجام شد.
مواد و روش­ها: در این مطالعه تعداد ۱۲۰ نمونه 5 کیلوگرمی از سبزیجات در ماه‌های مختلف فصل­های تابستان و زمستان از میدان اصلی تره‌بار شهر نمونه­برداری و به آزمایشگاه ارسال گردید. نمونه­ها شامل گوجه­فرنگی، خیار، سیب­زمینی، پیاز (زرد- سفید- قرمز)، کاهو، کرفس، شاهی و اسفناج یا برگ چغندر بودند. پس از آماده­سازی و عصاره­گیری از نمونه­ها، غلظت نیترات با استفاده از دستگاه اسپکتروفتومتر در طول موج 410 نانومتر تعیین شد.
یافته­ها: غلظت نیترات در تمامی سبزیجات نمونه­برداری شده در فصل زمستان کمتر از حد استاندارد سازمان جهانی بهداشت و استاندارد ملی ایران بود، اما در فصل تابستان غلظت نیترات در کرفس، شاهی و برگ چغندر بیشتر از حد استاندارد­های بیان شده بود. در تمام سبزیجات و در هر دو فصل مقادیر شاخص نسبت خطر (HQ) به‌دست آمده کمتر از ۱ بود. در فصل تابستان بیشترین مقادیر HQ به­ترتیب در شاهی (۴۲۵/۰)، برگ چغندر (۳۶۳/۰) و کرفس (۱۳۵/۰) مشاهده شد. در فصل زمستان نیز بیشترین مقدار HQ در شاهی (۱۹۰/۰) مشاهده شد.
نتیجه­گیری: با توجه به شاخص خطر­پذیری کمتر از ۱ در تمام سبزیجات، احتمال مواجهه با بیماری­های غیرسرطانی ناشی از نیترات از مسیر خوردن سبزیجات در این مطالعه به‌طور جدی وجود ندارد، اما پایش غلظت نیترات در محصولات مصرفی در فواصل زمانی مختلف ضروری است.
نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Human Health Risk Assessment of Exposure to Nitrate from Vegetables Distributed in Kermanshah

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sareh Nezami 1
  • Akram Fatemi 2
1 Soil Science and Engineering Department- Agricultural College- Razi University- Kermanshah- Iran
2 Soil Science and Engineering Department-Faculty of Agriculture- Razi University- Kermanshah- Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Aim:Theexcessive consumption of nitrogen fertilizers leads to the production of vegetables with high concentrations of nitrate. High nitrate concentration in crops causes a variety of diseases, especially due to the production of carcinogen nitrosamine in adults. Because of the increase in cancerous and non-cancerous diseases caused by the consumption of foods containing high nitrate, a detailed and comprehensive assessment of the state of nitrate accumulation in vegetables is required. This study was conducted to evaluate the risk of nitrate in high-consumption vegetables in Kermanshah.
Materials and Methods: In this study, 120 samples of five kilograms of high-consumption vegetables were sampled in different months of each season and sent to the laboratory. Samples included tomato, cucumber, potato, onion (yellow, white, red), lettuce, celery, watercress, and spinach or beet leaves. After sample preparation and extraction, the nitrate concentration was determined by a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 410 nm.
Results:The nitrate concentration in all vegetables was less than the WHO and ISRI standard limits in winter. But in the summer, the concentration of nitrate in celery, cress, and sugar beet leaves exceeded the standard limits. The hazard quotient (HQ) was less than 1 in all vegetables and both seasons. In summer, the highest HQ values were observed in cress (0.425), beet leaves (0.363), and celery (0.135), in sequence. In the winter, the highest amount of HQ was seen in cress (0.190).
Conclusion:According to the HQ values (less than 1) in all vegetables, the possibility of exposure to non-carcinogenic diseases caused by nitrate from eating vegetables in this study is not serious, but it is necessary to monitor the concentration of nitrate in consumed vegetables at different intervals.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Vegetables
  • Hazard Quotient
  • Risk Assessment
  • Food safety
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