بررسی تغییرات مقادیر کلر و شوری آب های زیرزمینی دشت فیروزآباد و ارزیابی مقایسه‌ای برای مصارف کشاورزی وشرب

نوع مقاله: مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گزوه آبخیزداری، دانشکد منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد / گروه آبخیزداری دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

3 عضو هئات علمی گروه مرتع دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

4 کارشناس سازمان آب منطقه ای استان فارس

چکیده

زمینه و هدف:تغییر کیفیت آب‌های زیرزمینی و شور شدن منابع آب، در حال حاضر خطری بزرگ برای توسعه کشاورزی کشور به‌خصوص در اراضی خشک و نیمه خشک می‌باشد. تهیه نقشه­های هم مقدار شوری و املاح، گام مهمی در بهره‌برداری از منابع آب است.  مطالعه حاضر با هدف ارزیابی فرآیند­های هیدروژئوشیمی مؤثر در کیفیت آب زیرزمینی در دشت فیروزآباد واقع در غرب استان فارس انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: رسم نقشه­های هم مقدار پارامترهای شیمیایی نظیر هدایت الکتریکی، تغییرات مقادیر هدایت الکتریکی و نقشه هم مقدار کلر و تغییرات آن، روند تغییرات مواد محلول موجود، نقشه تغییرات سختی کل و نقشه تغییرات نسبت جذب سدیم در دشت فیروزآباد استان فارس صورت گرفت که این امر با مطالعه پارامترهایی نظیر هدایت الکتریکی، اسیدیته، نیترات و مواد جامد محلول و استفاده از داده­های هیدروشیمیایی چاه­های اندازه­گیری در شرق و غرب دشت و استفاده از روش­های شولر و ویلکوکس جهت تهیه خطوط هم میزان و تحلیل آنها صورت گرفت.
یافته­ها: بر اساس نقشه­های هم­مقدار پارامترهای شیمیایی در مناطق مورد مطالعه و نمودار تغییرات و کلاسه‌بندی داده­ها بر اساس نمودار شولر و ویلکوکس، طبقه­بندی آب آبیاری طبق نظر ویلکوکس در دو دوره 1383 و 1390 نشان‌دهنده کاهش کیفیت از نظر کشاورزی بود. بر اساس نتایج طبقه­بندی آب شرب  به‌طور کلی تغییرات زیادی از نظر کیفیت شرب  به جز در سال 1390 به مقدار کم  مشاهده نشد.
نتیجه‌گیری:مقادیر کلر و هدایت الکتریکی دشت فیروزآباد از شمال و شمال غرب به سمت مرکز و بخش شرقی دشت و از شرق به سمت مرکز افزایش یافته بود. از نظر شرب، آب‌های زیرزمینی منطقه بر اساس دیاگرام شولر در سه طبقه خوب، قابل قبول و متوسط قرار­ داشت و کیفیت، جهت استفاده در کشاورزی در سال 1390 در کلاس­های C2S1، C1S1، C3S1، C3S3، C3S4 و C3S2 و در دوره اول یعنی سال 1383 در کلاس­هایC2S1 ، C1S1 و C3S1 قرار داشتند. به‌طور کلی تغییرات زیادی از نظر کیفیت شرب مشاهده نشد و فقط در سال 1390 به مقدار کمی کاهش کیفیت اتفاق افتاد. طبقه­بندی آب آبیاری طبق نظر ویلکوکس در دو دوره 1383 و 1390 نشان‌دهنده کاهش کیفیت از نظر کشاورزی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating Changes in Chlorine and Salinity Levels of Groundwater in Firoozabad Plain and Evaluation of Comparison of Agricultural and drinkable water

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ghorban Vahabzadeh 1
  • Hojat Delavar 2
  • Jamshid Ghorbani 3
  • Mohammad reza Ashrafi 4
1 watershed management Dept, faculty of natural resources, university of agricultural & natural resources of sari
2 MSC of watershed Engineering of sari agricultural and natural Resources university
3 Assistant professor of range Engineering Dept. Faculty of natural Resources. sari agricultural and natural
4 Expert of water management organization of Mazandaran Province
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Purpose
Changing the quality of groundwater and increasing salinity of water resources are considered as a major threat for country's agricultural development, especially in arid and semi-arid lands. Preparing counter maps of salinity and salts can be an important step in the proper utilization of water resources. This research was carried out in Firoozabad plain in west of Fars province to evaluate the hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater quality.
 
Method
Preparation of the counter maps of the chemical parameters such as Electrical Conductivity (EC), chlorine and their variations along with the counter maps of variation trends of Total Dissolved Solids (TDSs), total hardness and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) in Firoozabad plain was performed using EC, NO3, TDS and hydrodynamic data of wells measured in East and West of Firoozabad plain. Preparation of similar maps was carried out using Schuler and Wilcox diagrams to produce coincidence lines.
 
Findings
Based on the maps of the chemical parameters in the studied areas along with variation diagrams and classifications of the data according to Wilcox and Schuler diagrams, the water classification indicated a declined quality of water for agricultural purposes in 2004 and 2011. Based on the obtained results for the drinking water classification, there were generally no significant changes in drinking quality except in 2011.
 
Conclusion
The amount of chlorine and electrical conductivity parameters in the Firoozabad plain increased from north and northwest to the center and eastern part of the plain and from east to center. Also, the results showed that based on the Schuler diagram from the aspect of drinking quality, the groundwater of this plain was classified into three classes: good, acceptable and moderate. However, in terms of quality for agricultural purposes, it was in C3S1, C1S1, C2S1 C3S2, C3S4 and C3S3 classes in 2011, and in C3S1, C1S1, and C2S1 classes in 2004 (first period). According to Wilcox, the water quality for agricultural purposes was decreased in 2004 and 2010. However, drinking water quality was rather stable except in 1390 which experienced a little bit decrease in quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • electrical conductivity
  • chlorine
  • dry residue
  • Schuler
  • wilcox
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