ارزیابی کیفیت هوا بر اساس شاخص کیفیت هوا در شهر کرمان در سال 1394

نوع مقاله: مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بندرعباس، بندرعباس، ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد، گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بندرعباس، بندرعباس، ایران.

3 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بندرعباس، بندرعباس، ایران..

4 مربی، گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بندرعباس، بندرعباس، ایران.

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: آلودگی هوا و اثرات بهداشتی آن، یک چالش اساسی در ایران می­باشد. یکی از اقدامات مؤثر جهت کنترل کیفیت هوا، تعیین میزان واقعی آلاینده­ها و توصیف کیفیت هوا در مقایسه با شرایط استاندارد می­باشد. مطالعه حاضر با هدف ارزیابی کیفیت بهداشتی هوای شهر کرمان و معرفی آلاینده مسئول در سال 1394 انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: در این مطالعه توصیفی- تحلیلی، داده­های غلظت آلاینده­های هوا از سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست کرمان به‌دست آمد. سپس شاخص کیفیت هوا برای آلاینده­ های معیار (CO، SO2، NO2، PM10، O3 وPM2.5) محاسبه گردید. بر مبنای سطح این شاخص، کیفیت هوا به گروه­های خوب، متوسط، غیر بهداشتی برای گروه­های حساس، غیر بهداشتی، خیلی غیر بهداشتی و خطرناک تقسیم‌بندی شد.
یافته‌ها: کیفیت هوای شهر کرمان در سال 1394 در 7، 60، 29 و 4 درصد روزهایی که سنجش آلاینده­ها انجام گرفت، به ترتیب در وضعیت پاک، سالم، ناسالم برای گروه ­های حساس و ناسالم قرار داشت. بهترین و بدترین کیفیت هوا در ماه‌های دی (فصل سرد) و فروردین (فصل گرم) مشاهده شد. آلاینده مسئول آلودگی هوا در این شهر، PM2.5 بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: مسئول اصلی آلودگی هوای شهر کرمان در سال 1394، ذرات معلق بودند. این وضعیت ممکن است ناشی از طوفان­ های گردوغبار محلی و منطقه‌ای (به‌خصوص از مناطق جنوب غربی ایران و همچنین منطقه سیستان) باشد. بنابراین می‌بایست اقدامات لازم جهت کنترل این نوع آلودگی و نیز کاهش سطح تماس افراد جامعه با آن انجام گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Air Quality based on Air Quality Index in Kerman City, 2015

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen heidari 1
  • zoha heidarinejad 2
  • Vali Alipour 1
  • kavoos dindarloo 3
  • Omid Rahmanian 1
  • Babak Goodarzi 4
  • hasan Mousapour 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Bandar Abbas University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
2 M.Sc, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Bandar Abbas University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Bandar Abbas University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
4 Lecturer, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Bandar Abbas University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background: Air pollution and its health effects is a principal challenge in Iran. One of the effective measures to control air quality is to determine the actual amount of pollutants and describe the air quality in comparison with standard conditions. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the air quality in Kerman based on Air Quality Index (AQI) and to determine the responsible pollutant in polluted days during April 2015 to March 2016.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the air pollutants concentration data were obtained from Kerman environmental protection agency. Then, the AQI values were calculated based on the levels of the criteria pollutants, i.e., CO, NO2, SO2, PM10, PM2.5 and O3. Based on AQI levels, the air quality was classified into six groups including good, moderate, unhealthy for the sensitive people, unhealthy, very unhealthy and dangerous.
Results: During the studied year, the air quality in 7%, 60%, 29% and 4% of the days, in which the pollutants concentrations were measured, was in clean condition, healthy conditions, unhealthy conditions for sensitive groups and unhealthy condition, respectively. The best and worst air quality conditions were observed in January (in cold season) and April (in warm season), respectively. PM2.5 was the responsible pollutant for air pollution in Kerman.
Conclusion: The results showed that the main responsible pollutant which causes air pollution in Kerman was particulate matter. This situation may be originated from the local and regional dust storms, especially from south-west and Sistan regions. Therefore, the essential actions must be taken to control such pollution and to minimize the community exposure to this pollutant. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • AQI
  • Air pollution
  • Criteria Pollutant
  • PM2.5
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