برآورد تعداد موارد مرگ قلبی- عروقی، سکته قلبی و بیماری انسداد مزمن ریوی منتسب به ذرات معلق و دی اکسید گوگرد موجود در هوای کلان شهر تهران

نوع مقاله: مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران، ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد، گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران، ایران.

3 گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: یکی از مهم‌ترین خطرات ناشی از گسترش روزافزون و بی‌رویه شهرها، توسعه اقتصادی و مصرف انرژی در قرن اخیر، آلودگی هوا می‌باشد که با روند افزایشی در شهرهای بزرگ، به ‌طور جدی سلامت ساکنین را تهدید می‌کند. مطالعه حاضر با هدف ارزیابی اثرات بهداشتی و برآورد تعداد موارد مرگ و بیماری ناشی از بیماری‌های قلبی عروقی، سکته قلبی و بیماری انسداد مزمن ریوی منتسب به آلاینده‌های PM10، PM2.5  و SO2 در کلان شهر تهران در سال 1392 با استفاده از مدل AirQ انجام شد.
روش‌کار:در این مطالعه مقطعی، داده‌های مورد نیاز از سازمان محیط زیست و شرکت کنترل کیفیت هوای شهر تهران اخذ گردید. این داده‌ها توسط نرم افزار Excel پردازش گردید و بدین ترتیب اطلاعات پردازش شده به مدل AirQ وارد شد. سپس خطر نسبی، بروز پایه و جزء منتسب برآورد شده و در نهایت نتایج کلی به صورت موارد مرگ و بیماری در قالب جداول و نمودار ارائه شد.
یافته ها: بر اساس نتایج مطالعه، متوسط غلظت سالیانه آلاینده‌های PM10، PM2.5 و SO2 به ترتیب برابر با 73، 43 و 41 میکروگرم در متر مکعب بود که به ترتیب تقریباً 3/65، 4/3 و 2/05 برابر استاندارد ملی هوای پاک ایران و رهنمود سازمان جهانی بهداشت می‌باشد. موارد کل مرگ منتسب به آلاینده‌های PM10، PM2.5و SO2 به ترتیب حدود 2187، 2842 و721 مورد بود که این میزان به ترتیب 3/65، 4/75 و 1/20 درصد از کل مرگ‌های این شهر (به غیر از تصادفات) را به خود اختصاص داده است.
نتیجه ‌گیری: نتایج نشانگر اثرات بهداشتی منتسب به آلاینده‌های ذرات معلق و دی اکسید گوگرد شامل کل مرگ، مرگ‌های قلبی- عروقی، تنفسی، بستری در بیمارستان به دلیل بیماری انسداد مزمن ریوی و سکته قلبی در کلان‌ شهر تهران بود که حاکی از افزایش آلاینده‌های مذکور و آلودگی هوای ناشی از آن‌ها در هوای شهر تهران است که نیازمند توجه هر چه بیشتر مسئولین و متخصصین امر جهت کنترل آلودگی هوا می‌باشد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Estimation of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attributed to PM and SO2 in the air of Tehran metropolis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Kermani 1
  • sevda fallah jokandan 2
  • Mina Aghaei 3
  • Mohsen dowlati 1
1 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background & Objective : Air pollution is considered as one of the the most important risks of uncontrolled growth of cities, economic development and energy consumption in the last century. In large cities, such an increasing trend seriously threatens the health of residents.
This study aims to evaluate the health effects of PM10, PM2.5 and SO2, and estimate the mortality and morbidity rate of cardiovascular, respiratory and Chronic obstructive pulmonary, attributed to the aforementioned pollutants, using AirQ model in metropolis of Tehran in 1392.
Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, Data required were collected from environmental protection organization and air quality control center of Tehran. These data were analyzed by Excel, and the processed data entered AirQ model. Then relative risk, basis risk and attributable  fraction were estimated. Finally, the gained results, being  mortality and morbidity rate, were presented in tables and graphs.
Results: The results showed that the average annual concentration of PM10, PM2.5 and SO2, were 73, 43 and 41 μg/m3, respectively, being 3.65, 4.3 and 2.05 times higher than the national standard of  Iran and WHO guidelines, correspondingly. Total number of mortalities attributed to the PM10, PM2.5 and SO2, were about 2187, 2842 and 721, respectively, being 3.65%, 4.75% and 1.20% of total deaths of Tehran city (except accidents), correspondingly.
Conclusion: The results showed the health effects of particulate matter and sulfur dioxide pollutants, including total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, respiratory, hospitalizations due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and myocardial infarction in Tehran. So, it’s obviously clear that the proportion of mentioned pollutants are being increased  in Tehran’s atmosphere that requires more attention of officials and experts to control air pollution.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Air pollution
  • Health Effects
  • Particulate Matter
  • Sulfur dioxide
  • AirQ model
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