بررسی مقایسه ای شاخص بهداشت کیفیت هوا (AQHI) و کاربردهای آن در کلانشهر تهران در سال های 86 تا 93

نوع مقاله: Research Paper

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران ، تهران، ایران

3 استاد گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: آلودگی هوا یکی ازعوامل مهم تهدید کننده سلامت انسان می باشد. کیفیت نامطلوب هوا باعث ایجاد آسیب های زیادی بر انسان و محیط زیست و اثرات بهداشتی مختلف می شود. از این رو مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی مقایسه ای شاخص بهداشت کیفیت هو (AQHI) و کاربردهای آن در کلانشهر تهران در سال های 86 تا 93 انجام شد.
 
روش کار: این مطالعه از نوع توصیفی- تحلیلی می باشد ابتدا اطلاعات ساعتی مربوط به چهار آلاینده معیار از اداره کل محیط زیست تهران و شرکت کنترل کیفیت هوا جمع آوری گردید .سپس به وسیله معیار های سازمان جهانی بهداشت اعتبار سنجی گردید و با توجه به دستورالعمل ها، شاخص بهداشت کیفیت هوا محاسبه شد و بر مبنای جداول استاندارد کیفیت بهداشتی هوا در گروه های خطر کم، متوسط، زیاد و خیلی زیاد طبقه بندی گردید.
 
یافته ها: نتایج نشان داد که بر اساس شاخص بهداشت کیفیت هوا میزان آلودگی هوا در شهر تهران در وضعیت نا مناسبی قرار دارد و بر این اساس طی سالهای   93-86 به ترتیب در  95 % ، 92 % ، 73 % ، 65 % ، 57 % ، 65 % ،52 % و  46%  از روز ها کیفیت هوا از حد استاندارد تجاوز کرده است که شامل مجموع سطح خطر زیاد و سطح خطر خیلی زیاد می باشد.
 
نتیجه‌گیری: در نتیجه با توجه به میزان بالای آلودگی هوا و خطرات ناشی از آن، بایستی برنامه ریزی و مدیریت مناسبی در بخش بهداشت و محیط زیست جهت کنترل و کاهش آلودگی هوا صورت گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Study on the Comparative Investigation of Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) and its application in Tehran as a Megacity since 2007 to 2014

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Kermani 1
  • Mohsen Dowlati 2
  • Ahmad jonidi jaffari 3
  • Roshanak Rezaei kalantari 3
1 Assistant Professor of Environmental Health Engineering Department, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2 MS, Student of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Professor of Environmental Health Engineering Department, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and objective: Air pollution is one of the major factors threatening human health and our environment. This study aimed at the comparative investigation of Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) and its application in the city of Tehran since 2007 to 2014.
 
Materials & Methods: This Study was a descriptive–analytic one. First, the required data were taken from Department of Environment and the Air Quality Control Company.  The data were validated by the World Health Organization criteria .The air quality health index was measured based on the air quality standard tables and classified into low, medium, high and very high degrees.
 
Results: The results  show that according to air quality health index, the level of air pollution in Tehran has been undesirable since 2007 to 2014  and in 95%,92%,73%,65%,57%,65%,52%,46% of days Air quality has exceeded the standard level respectively .So, the level of risk has been high and sometimes very high.
 
Conclusion:As a result, due to high level of air pollution and its dangerous effects,  proper planning and management  should be considered in environmental health sectors to control and reduce air pollution.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Air pollution
  • air quality health index
  • Tehran Megacity
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