خصوصیت و منشأیابی آلودگی فلزات سنگین در ذرات غبار ترسیب‌شده اتمسفری شهر تهران در سال 1397

نوع مقاله: Research Paper

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تهران

2 مرکز پژوهش‌های کاربردی سازمان زمین شناسی و اکتشافات معدنی

3 انستیتو علوم مهندسی شیمی، سازمان تحقیقات و تکنولوژی، هالاس، یونان

10.22038/jreh.2020.44168.1335

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: ذرات غبار اتمسفری نقش قابل توجهی در انتقال عناصر شیمیایی رهاشده از منابع صنعتی و شهری دارند. بطوری‌که آلاینده‌های متصل به این ذرات می‌توانند طی مسافت‌های طولانی منتقل شده و به عنوان تابعی از شرایط هواشناسی، خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی ذرات و طبیعت سطح هستند. هدف از مطالعه حاضر ارزیابی غنای فلزی و درجه آلودگی فلزات سنگین در غبار ترسیب‌شده اتمسفری شهر تهران بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: نمونه‌های غبار از 8 نقطه از شهر تهران در سال 1397 برداشت شد. فلزات سنگین (سرب، روی، مس، نیکل، کروم، منگنز و آلومینیوم) در این ذرات با استفاده از دستگاه ICP-MS آنالیز شد. غنای فلزات و درجه آلودگی با استفاده از شاخص‌های فاکتور غنی‌شدگی (EF)، انباشت زمینی (Igeo)، درجه آلودگی (Cd) و درجه آلودگی اصلاح‌شده (mCd) تعیین شد. از آزمون‌های تی جفتی، همبستگی پیرسون و تجزیه خوشه‌ای سلسله مراتبی جهت تحلیل استفاده شد.
یافته‌ها: روند میانگین غلظت عناصر در فصل گرم و سرد مشابه و به صورت آلومینیوم>روی>منگنز>سرب>مس>کروم>نیکل بود. نتایج شاخص‌ غنی‌شدگی در نمونه‌های غبار ترسیب‌شده اتمسفری نشان داد که عناصر سرب و روی در فصل گرم و سرب و مس در فصل سرد دارای غنی‌شدگی شدید بودند. نتایج آزمون تی جفتی تفاوت معنی‌داری را بین عناصر مس وکروم بین فصول نشان داد. آزمون تجزیه خوشه‌ای نیز عنصر آلومینیوم را با منشأ طبیعی و بقیه عناصر را با منشأ انسانی نشان داد.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که غبار ترسیب‌شده اتمسفری شهر تهران دارای سطوح بالایی از آلودگی بخصوص در فصل سرد است. لذا لزوم تدوین سیاست‌هایی مدون و کاربردی‌تر جهت ارتقای کیفیت هوای شهر تهران ضروری به‌نظر می‌رسد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Characterization and source identification of heavy metals in atmospheric deposited dust of Tehran in 2018

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Saleh Ali-Taleshi 1
  • Sadat Feiznia 1
  • Reza Shahbazi 2
  • Stefania Squizzato 3
1 University of Tehran
2 Geological Survey of Iran (GSI)
3 Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Foundation of Research and Technology – Hellas, Greece
چکیده [English]

Background and purpose: Atmospheric dust particles play a significant role in the transfer of chemical elements released from industrial and urban sources. So that the contaminants attached to these particles, can be transported over long distances and are as a function of meteorological conditions, the physical and chemical properties and nature of surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metal richness and degree of heavy metal contamination in atmospheric deposited dust in Tehran.
Material and methods: Atmospheric dust samples were collected from eight locations in Tehran in 2018. Heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Mn and Al) were analyzed in dust using ICP-MS. Metal richness and degree of contamination were determined using Enrichment Factor (EF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), degree of Contamination (Cd) and modified degree of contamination (mCd). Paired t-test, Pearson correlation and Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were also used for analysis.
Results: The mean concentration trend of elements in the warm and cold seasons was similar as Al>Zn>Mn>Pb>Cu>Cr>Ni. Results of enrichment factor index in atmospheric deposited dust showed that Pb and Zn in warm season and Pb and Cu in cold season were highly enriched. Paired t-test results showed a significant difference between Cu and Cr between seasons. Cluster analysis also showed Al of natural origin and other elements of anthropogenic origin.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that atmospheric deposited dust particles of Tehran have high levels of contamination especially in cold season. Therefore, it is necessary to formulate more effective and practical policies to improve Tehran’s air quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Source identification
  • Enrichment factor
  • Heavy metals
  • Atmospheric deposited dust
  • Tehran
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