ارزیابی اثرات بهداشتی ناشی از PM2.5 در هوای شهر کرج 1391-1394

نوع مقاله: مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 گروه بهداشت محیط، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اهواز، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 گروه اپیدمیولوژی و آمار زیستی، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی جندی شاپور اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
زمینه و هدف:هوای کاملاً تمیز در طبیعت وجود ندارد. میزان مشخصی از ذرات شامل گردوغبار، خاک، دوده، دود و قطرات آب در هوا وجود دارد. شواهد موجود، نشانگر افزایش غلظت ذرات و اثرات بهداشتی منتسب به آن­ها در کشورهای در حال توسعه می­باشد. مطالعه حاضر با هدف تعیین تعداد موارد بیماری قلبی- عروقی، تنفسی و کل مرگ منتسب به  PM2.5در شهر کرج طی سال­های 94-1391 انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: ارزیابی اثرات بهداشتی PM2.5در هوای شهر کرج طی 4 سال با بکارگیری نرم‌افزار ایرکیو پلاس انجام شد. داده­های آلودگی هوا از سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست این شهر اخذ گردید. جهت اعتبارسنجی، معیارهای سازمان جهانی بهداشت استفاده شد. در نهایت، داده­های پردازش شده توسط نرم‌افزار اکسل به مدل داده شد.
یافته‌ها: میانگین غلظت سالیانه PM2.5هوای شهر کرج طی سال­های مطالعه بیشتر از رهنمود­های سازمان جهانی بهداشت (10 میکرو گرم بر متر مکعب) بود. غلظت آلاینده PM2.5طی مطالعه کاهش یافته است، ولی افزایشی ناگهانی غلظت آن، در سال 1394 مشهود بود. به‌علاوه، بالاترین جزء منتسب در سال 1391 (59/04% برای اثرات ناشی از مواجهه بلندمدت و5/86% برای کوتاه‌مدت) برآورد شد. مواجهه با PM2.5، به‌ترتیب منجر به 275 و 60 مرگ به دلیل اثرات ناشی از مواجهه بلندمدت و کوتاه‌مدت در سال 1391 شده بود که بسیار بالا بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به اثرات بهداشتی منتسب به PM2.5 در هوای شهر کرج، اهمیت مدیریت کنترل آلودگی هوا در این کلان‌شهر بیش از پیش مشخص می­گردد.
نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی
کلید واژه‌ها:آلودگی هوا، مدل‌سازی ایرکیو پلاس، PM2.5

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Health Impact Assessment of the Ambient PM2.5 Concentration in Karaj, Iran, during 2012-2015

نویسندگان [English]

  • Vafa Hamid 1
  • Gholamreza Goudarzi 2
  • Abdolkazem Neisi 2
  • Maryam Dastoorpoor 3
1 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background: Perfectly clean air cannot be found in nature. It contains a certain abundance of particles, including dust, dirt, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. Mounting evidence indicates increase in particle concentrations and health effects attributed to them in developing countries.
In this work, we focused on the determination of number of cardiovascular, respiratory diseases and total death associated with PM2.5 in Karaj city during 2012 to 2015.
Material and Methods: The health effects of PM2.5 concentrations in ambient air of Karaj was determined using AirQ+ software. Air pollution data was obtained from the Department of Environmental Protection of this city. To validate the data, WHO criterion was performed. After all, data processed by Excel was given to the model.
Results: The annual average PM2.5 concentrations in ambient air of this city during the study was higher than WHO health protective guideline (10 µg m–3). The concentration of pollutant has been reduced during the study period but there is a sudden increase in 2015. In addition, the most attributable proportion was estimated in Karaj in 2012 (59.04% for long-term and 5.86 for short-term effects). PM2.5 exposure has caused 275 and 60 natural deaths due to long-term and short-term exposure in 2012 which is unexpected.
Conclusion: Regarding the health effects of PM2.5 in ambient air of Karaj city, the importance of controlling air pollution in this metropolis is becoming increasingly evident.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Air pollution
  • PM2.5
  • AirQ+ modeling

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