بررسی روند تغییرات غلظت ذرات معلق شهر مشهد با استفاده از داده های هواشناسی در سالهای 1390-1395

نوع مقاله: Research Paper

نویسندگان

1 پیام نور

2 پیام نور شیراز

چکیده

چکیده:
زمینه و هدف: آلودگی هوا به عنوان یک مساله مهم زیست محیطی محسوب می شود. در ایران میزان انتشار آلاینده­های هوا در بسیاری از شهرها از جمله مشهد افزایش یافته است. مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی روند تغییرات غلظت ذرات معلق با داده­های هواشناسی در هوای مشهد صورت گرفت.
مواد و روش‌ها: این مطالعه توصیفی - مقطعی با استفاده از داده­های مربوط به 9 ایستگاه پایش آلاینده­های هوا و ایستگاه سینوپتیک مشهد (شامل: دما، ساعات آفتابی، بارندگی، تبخیر، رطوبت، سرعت و جهت باد) طی سال‌های 95-1390 صورت گرفت. غلظت میانگین روزانه PM10 و  PM2.5از ایستگاه‌ها دریافت و سپس با استفاده از نرم‌افزار آماری SPSS، ورژن 18 مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفتند.
یافته‌ها:روند تغییرات فصلی نشان داد حداکثر غلظت ذرات معلق در فصل پاییز و در مهر ماه اتفاق می‌افتد. طی سال‌های 92-1390 تعداد روزهای ناسالم روند افزایشی داشته و در سال‌های 1393 و 1394 کاهش یافته و مجدداً در سال 1395 افزایش یافته بود. ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ PM10 و PM2.5 با سال، ﻓﺼﻞ ﻭ ﻣﺎﻩ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﻌﻨﻰﺩﺍﺭی داشت (p<0/001). ارتباط PM10 با دما و تبخیر مستقیم و با رطوبت و بارندگی معکوس بود. همچنین ارتباط PM2.5 با حداقل دما، روزهای آفتابی، بارندگی و سرعت باد معکوس و با جهت باد مستقیم بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: بیشترین میزان غلظت ذرات معلق در فصل پاییز و خصوصاً مهر ماه می­باشد. نقشه­های پراکندگی نشان می‌دهد که شرق و تا حدودی مرکز مشهد، آلودگی بیشتری نسبت به سایر مناطق دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the airborne particulate matter concentration trend changes in Mashhad by using meteorological data during 2010-2015

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Asrari 1
  • Maryam Paydar 2
1 payame noor
2 payame Noor University
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
 Background and Purpose: Air pollution problem in metropolitan’s city is made by different sources of pollutants. The proportion of air pollutants’ emissions have been increased in many cities of Iran such as Mashhad. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between the trend of particular matter concentration changes and metrological parameters in the atmosphere of Mashhad.
 
Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross - sectional study, data including temperature, sunny hours, precipitation, evaporation, moisture, speed and direction of wind were collected from 11 monitoring stations of air pollutants and Metrologic synoptic stations in Mashhad during 2010-2016. Daily average concentrations of PM10 of PM2.5) were calculated, and then relationships between pollutants and metrological data analyzed by Spss18 software.
Findings: The results showed that the maximum concentrations of particle matter occurred in October and autumn season. Numbers of unhealthy days were increased during the years of 2011-2013, decreased in 2014 - 2015 and increased again in 2016. The variations of PM10 and PM2.5 are significant with season, month and year (P <0.001). PM10 was directly related to temperature and evaporation (r=0.095). Also, there was a reverse relation among humidity and rainfall. A reverse relationship was observed between PM2.5 concentration and minimum temperature, sunny days, rainfall and wind speed; however, it was directly related to wind direction.
 
Conclusion: According to the obtained results in the autumn and October, the highest concentration of particulate matter was observed. Also, GIS maps showed that eastern and relatively center of Mashhad is more polluted than other areas.
Keywords: Air pollution, Mashhad, PM2.5, PM10, Meteorology data

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Air pollution
  • Mashhad
  • PM2.5
  • PM10
  • Meteorology data
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