بررسی میزان تجمع فلزات سنگین در بافت‌های مختلف موش‌های آزمایشگاهی

نوع مقاله: مقالات پژوهشى اصیل کمی و کیفی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد شیمی خاک، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان

2 استادیار گروه خاکشناسی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان

3 گروه کشاورزی دانشگاه پیام نور صندوق پستی 19395-3697

4 دانشجوی دکتری خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: در دهه­های اخیر، تمرکز فعالیت‎های صنعتی، کشاورزی و شهرنشینی باعث آلودگی و تجمع عناصر سنگین در خاک و گیاهان شده است که به‌‌صورت مستقیم یا غیرمستقیم بر زندگی انسان‌ها و حیوانات اثر می‌گذارد. در حال حاضر در اکثر محصولات کشاورزی تجمع آلاینده‌ها به دلیل استمرار مصرف نامتعادل کودها که از دیدِ مصرف کنندگان به دور مانده، بسیار بیشتر از حد مجاز است. مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی میزان جذب فلزات سنگین مس، سرب و کادمیوم بر روی اندام­های مختلف موش‌های تحت تغذیه گیاه توت‌فرنگی آلوده انجام شد.
مواد و روش­ها: در این پژوهش تجمع و توزیع عناصر سنگین در اندام‌های مختلف موش صحرایی که تحت شرایط مختلف غذایی قرار گرفته بودند، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در این مطالعه گروه­های مختلف موش (تعداد 27 موش) با توت‌فرنگی آلوده به عناصر سنگین به صورت گاواژ دهانی در طی یک دوره 3 ماهه، هر روز تغذیه شدند. با توجه به متوسط وزن موش­ها برای هر کدام 0/5g توت‌فرنگی تازه در نظر گرفته شد. عناصر سنگین کادمیوم (15/773mg/L)، سرب (41/560mg/L) و مس (9/445mg/L) به صورت محلول به گیاه اضافه شد. در ادامه آزمایش، عناصر سنگین (کادمیوم، مس و سرب) تجمع یافته در اندام‌های مختلف موش (کلیه، کبد، پانکراس، بیضه، طحال و مغز) اندازه‌گیری شدند.
یافته­ها: غلظت عناصر مورد بررسی در توت‌فرنگی‌های تولیدی بالاتر از حد استاندارد ایران بودند؛ به‌گونه‌ای که میزان عناصر در میوه توت‌فرنگی برای کادمیوم، سرب و مس به ترتیب برابر با 7/7، 26 و 3/2mg/kgمیوه به‌دست آمد. بر اساس نتایج مطالعه، بین اندام­های مختلف اختلاف معنی­داری در جذب عناصر وجود داشت؛ به‌گونه‌ای که در مورد عنصر کادمیوم در تیمار آلوده در کلیه (0/41g/d) که بیشترین مقدار بود، اختلاف معنی­داری با اندام مغز (0/24g/d) که کمترین جذب کادمیوم را داشت، مشاهده شد. عناصر سنگین سرعت افزایش وزن موش­ها را کاهش داد. تجمع این عناصر در کلیه، کبد و پانکراس بالاتر از سایر اندام‌ها بود. مغز کمترین تجمع را در بین اندام‌های مورد برررسی نشان داد. بالاترین جذب عناصر توسط کلیه بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: به طور کلی نتایج نشان داده است در صورتی که کیفیت توت فرنگی مورد ارزیابی قرار نگیرد و به صورت آلوده در جامعه توزیع شود می­تواند اثرات زیان بار بسیاری بر سلامت جامعه داشته باشد و این کنترل کیفیت باید با دقت بالا صورت گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Heavy Metals Accumulation in Different Tissues of Laboratory Rat

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sepideh Yeganeh shali 1
  • GHASEM Rahimi 2
  • Leila Jahanban 3
  • Salahedin Moradi 3
  • Eisa Ebrahimi 4
1 MSc graduated, Soil chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamadan.
2 Assistant Prof. Soil science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu Ali Sina University. Hamadan.
3 Department, faculty, University (Institution), City, Country
4 Ph. D. Student, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: In recent decades, industrial, agricultural and urban activities have led to pollution and accumulation of heavy metals in soils and plants which directly or indirectly affects humans and animals lives. Nowadays, pollutant accumulation in most agricultural products is much higher than the permissible limit due to the excessive use of fertilizers. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the accumulated proportions of heavy metals such as copper, lead and cadmium in different tissues of laboratory rat.
 
Materials and Methods: In this study, the accumulation and distribution of heavy metals were investigated in different organs of rats under various nutritional conditions. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with greenhouse strawberry treatments in three groups.Different groups of rats (27 rats) were fed strawberries infected with heavy metals by oral gavage within a three-month period.
 Regarding the average weight of rats, 0.5 gram of fresh strawberry was considered for each rat. In addition, heavy metals solution including cadmium (15.773 mg / l), lead (41.560 mg / l) and copper (9.445 mg / l) were exerted to the plant. In the next stage of procedure, heavy metals (cadmium, copper and lead) accumulated in different organs of the rats (kidney, liver, pancreas, Testicle, spleen, and brain) were measured.
Results: Results showed that the concentrations of studied heavy metals in the strawberries were 7.7, 26 and 3.2 mg/kg for cadmium, lead and copper respectively, which were higher than Iranian standard level. The statistical results showed that there was a significant difference between the different organs in the intake of the heavy metals, so that in the infected treatment, the most and lowest amounts of cadmium were in the kidney (0.41 g / day) and the brain (0.24 g / day), respectively. Heavy metals caused reduction in the rate of weight gain of rats. The accumulation of these elements was higher in the kidney, liver and pancreas than other organs. The least accumulation of heavy metals was related to the rat’s brain, while highest proportion of the heavy metals accumulation was in the kidney.
 
Conclusion: The results demonstrated that if strawberry quality is not evaluated properly and distributed throughout community in the contaminated form, it can pose many harmful effects on the community’s health. Therefore, the quality control should be carried out with high precision.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Contamination
  • Lead
  • Toxicity
  • Cadmium
  • Copper

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